Just following along with Apple's documentation. Her is the setUp. My question is this. If I make File's owner ( which has the ivars I wish to use) "MyDocument" then the app works as I expect it. But, **why** is MyDocument the File's owner. ( By this I mean when I bind the value of a text field in IB to the keyPath of the ivar in MyDocument) Is it the fact that MyDocument.h and the nib file are the same name? Sorry is this causes laughter Or to state it another way, I know that the File's owner is the object that contains the outlets I need to bind to, ( if that is the correct terminology) , but I want to make sure I understand the relationship ( from the diagrams I posted) between MyDocument.Xib and MyDocument.h/m. I choose MyDocument as the File's owner because the name was the same...is this the correct reason? thanks in advance.