Joe Paterno did have the University chairman and board above him and he reported the allegations to them (for advice? duty? University policy? all of above?). The chairman and board did nothing (from what I heard in media reports). Then the police investigation of the 1998 accusation which the DA did not prosecute. Sure JP could/should have fired Sandusky when he heard of a second accusation in 2001, but perhaps when he heard it he had other more pressing matters and chose to go with the boards advice? (hindsight is 20/20) To me it seems the University board escaped most of the punishment and JP took all the blame simply because he heard someone say something. I say this became a scandal took place in my university. In this case a player committed a felony, but the U Chairman chose to hide the event, but them the campus chief disclosed the act. It was the chief who got fired, player got a relatively light sentence, and chairman continued on business as usual. Those at the top have a lot of human walls to protect them.