There are various 'skin' and 'hardshell' coverings you can get for scratches...but for drops...not much you can do about 3.5lbs of metal + gravity.
I don't typically cover my MacBook Pro computers...I've only 'blemished' one of them...I brushed the magsafe end of my charter onto the case when pickup it up and it dinged the aluminum...but other than that, they hold up pretty good with a little caution.
No offense, but this was probably the lamest "near death" story I have heard in a while. Nothing against you, I understand the special care people give for new devices (basically I'm not calling you crazy), but a drop of a few inches shouldn't harm anything internally (externally you might get a few scratches). Especially in something with a SSD.
Then again, I have witnessed many a friends laptop fall off a table/ottoman and they didn't care. Maybe it's just me
Get a case if you want, (something thick and strong) to protect the exterior. Perhaps a screen protector, coupled with a silicone keyboard cover. Make sure the bottom vents are uncovered with a case, BTW.
And be prepared for some scratches, there's only so much you can do.
You just need to be more careful, I know its sounds stupid and sort of condescending but when I have stuff in my hands thats expensive I walk on egg shells practically. I know people who seam to break everything, you don't seam like that as you actually know it was a bad thing to do. As for scratch's, eventually they will happen, you'd think the metal was resiliant and it is but eventually my old MBP's metal lid was scratched quite a bit from being put in and out of my backpack so many times, the scratches were never deep though, a pouch for it solved this problem but I found the pouch to be making it too thick...same with a case. When I put it in my backpack I made sure that it was placed in a way that heavy books wouldn't press on the lid in a way that might damage the screen, as well as other measures.