Yes you can. I currently have both synced to my iPhone. iCal on both your Mac and iPhone has the ability to use multiple calendars. I have a few personal calendars that are only found on my Mac iCal and I have a few Google calendars that I share with other people.
It's very easy to do. I use iTunes to sync my iPhone so I don't know how it's done with iCloud if that it what you are using. Anyway, with iTunes all you have to do is turn on the calendar sync function and it will automatically sync any calendars you select on your Mac's iCal. The sync goes both ways so anything you create on your iPhone will also sync on your Mac and vice versa.
To sync to your Google calendar all you have to do is set it up in the mail section of the general settings app on your iPhone. You go through the same process of setting up a Gmail account, but you have to make sure the calendar option is also included.
There is also another way you can get Google's calendar onto your iPhone. If you have set up your Mac's iCal to sync to Google's calendar then you can also choose that to sync to your iPhone. The big downside of doing it that way is that you can't edit Google's calendar on your iPhone. It's read only, so you have to make all the changes on your Mac. The benefit of doing it this way is don't have to have access to the internet to sync your Google calendar because it syncs from iTunes on your Mac. I used to only have an iPod Touch without WiFi at home, so doing it this way was very useful in the past.