Firstly, I really want to thank all those who take the time to answer questions. Your input is invaluable, probably more than you realize. Hopefully, some day those of us who now are doing most of the asking will be able to shoulder more of the answers! Code: attributedStringForObjectValue:withDefaultAttributes: "The default implementation returns nil to indicate that the formatter object does not provide an attributed string." editingStringForObjectValue: "The default implementation of this method invokes stringForObjectValue:" getObjectValue:forString:errorDescription: "The default implementation of this method raises an exception." Ok quick question. Quite often, a method will carry the admonition that the "default" implementation will do this or that, usually, return nil, raise an exception etc, as the above trivial examples show. Does this simply mean that placing the method in a ?subclass, **with no code added** will do these things? And the implication is, that those methods are "template" methods and thus need to be over-ridden? Thanks.