The problem is I don't know enough about headphones to answer those questions.All the words in your OP are very subjective. You need to clarify what you consider to be "good" headphones. You also need to clearly state your budget. Don't just assume that your notion of cheap and expensive are the same as everyone else.
This is a very good post. I echo what you have said in that with headphones, you get what you pay for. If you love music, listen to it a lot, and have a long daily commute, it may well be worth your while investing in a decent pair.Budget for headphones goes from 10 to 1000 dollars and you generally get what you pay for.
Yo have to ask yourself what you want them for. Daily commute? Sitting back at home? Do you need a mic?
For daily commute, you should get earbuds as regular in ear headphones will easily get overwhelmed by outside noise. Bluetooth is great but wired has noticeably better sound. I would not spend more than 200 since you will likely lose these as you carry them around. I have had nice ones stolen more than once. However, buy good quality or you will have tangled wires, unstable sound in one ear etc. look for thick wires. IMO Shure makes the best but look for the thick wires.
For home, a real head set is much more comfortable. I would even think about looking into wireless since you have the option of listening to music through your normal speakers and its really convenient to not have wires when you are relaxing at home.