Well it might matter quite a lot. Does the phone number on your order already have an iPhone device active on it? So that it would already have an iPhone compatible data plan. Next up would be to verify the impact of the SIM being provisioned for the wrong phone number.
Did you pay Full-price or use a financing program? If you paid Full-price then a much lower risk of any impact.
Editing personal info will not affect your order -- I just changed my email address, no problem. I would make sure the billing phone number matches. Last think you want is for the charge to be declined at shipping because of that. May not matter, but why not check all boxes. If you are concerned about screwing up the order then call Apple and let one of their humans do it after you confirm it won't affect your delivery time.
So the billing phone number is correct. Actually, looking at my account, the phone number is correct in the account information for both billing and shipping. It was when I received the order confirmation that it shows the last two digits of the phone number for billing and shipping and the one for shipping is wrong on the last two digits. Not sure why. Everything else is right, correct address and everything.
I paid in full and the write number is associated with the order it just shows under the shipping address the name, blacked out phone number with only the last two digits (which is wrong) and the right address. Just wondering if this is to contact in case there is a problem with the delivery but UPS shouldn't have any issues so I don't want to mess with it if I don't have to.
I've been on hold for a while now with Apple to check.
You can hang up if you want. The number you described is the Contact Number and you are correct it is used if there is a Shipping issue. You also have eMail and possibly you added a secondary number to receive SMS Txt updates.