The iPhone 15 Pro supports WiFi 6E. If you have a Mac that also supports 6E and spend a few hundred on a router that supports 6E it still won’t approach the 10Gbps that the USB port is (theoretically) capable of.
EDIT: So it turns out that there are some 6E routers that claim better than 10Gbps for a lot more money than a TB4 cable.
WiFi 6E / 802.11ax 6GHz has a maximum of 4.8Gbps using 160Hz at 4x4. This is all theoretical of course, and WiFi is half-duplex, wired is full-duplex. This means that you get half the theoretical throughput when data is being transferred back and forth at the same time. And in pretty much 99% of all scenarios you will have read and write going on at the same time, this lowers the maximum theoretical throughput of WiFi 6E down to 2.2 Gbps.
Pretty much every client device, like the iPhone 15 Pro, is using 2x2. Going 4x4 requires more space and will have much higher power usage. You won't ever find that in a phone, or tablet, even 99% of all notebooks opt for 2x2 over 4x4. The only place you'll find 4x4 is in expensive network equipment and an external card for desktop use.
This brings WiFi 6E for the iPhone 15 Pro down to 1.1Gbps tops, in a best-case scenario.
Don't be fooled by routers advertising themselves as 10Gbps. This is misleading marketing where the router manufacturer combines the maximum theoretical throughput from 2.4GHz, 5.0GHz and 6.0GHz WiFi and combines them all. There is no way for any WiFi client to aggregate throughput over different spectrums making this 10Gbps value completely meaningless and pointless.